How are you? How are things going this semester?

Busy as well, both in my professional and personal life. Since we returned, we have gotten Robin settled at OSU (go Buckeyes!) and my husband Steve has moved to Chicago. As an IT activist, he was craving peers and new professional vistas. He craved city life, whereas I can't imagine living in a city right now... Skype is our friend :) At school, my geography classes are going really well and I am trying to drop some of my administrative roles. Sharon

1. How has the Costa Rica GPA experience impacted your teaching?
I used Costa Rica in my tourism and leisure unit and it was very successful because the curriculum focuses on eco-tourism and using tourism as a development strategy. My experiences provided me with a wealth of examples and insights that brought the unit alive for them. They were also blown away by Costa Rica's lack of military, public health spending, and focus on education and challenged to re-think what development and globalization means. I also used some of my module in my first year class to teach the MDGs (see #2). - Sharon

2. Have you been able to implement your curriculum module (yes or no)? Please provide details.
I have used the first several units for MDGs and plan to run the last couple after thanksgiving. - Sharon

3. What support could the GPA leadership team provide to help you implement your curriculum?
I wish I knew more about Panama because as we compared progress on MDGs, Panama seems to be doing as well as CR, and I don't know enough to respond to questions about how their development strategy differs. Any ideas? - Sharon

4. How has the Costa Rica GPA experience impacted you personally?

Upside - I have been thinking a whole lot about teaching strategies and am better about planning lessons that are interactive. I am also thinking a lot about what having a global perspective means. And, like Heidi, it made me want to travel more. And to speak Spanish more!
Downside - my grades in my MBA program suffered but I passed, and am done! Also, I am in physical therapy for a chronic neck problem that came from one of those crazy bus rides or non-existent pillows... Sharon

Mostly our trip has made me want to travel more and experience more of other

5. How has the Costa Rica GPA experience impacted you professionally?
I was inspired and challenged by the many great teachers on the trip, and I learned a whole lot about the art of teaching from you. It has made me a more confident educator. - Sharon

6. Have you given any presentations (formal or informal) since your return to the U.S.? Please include a presentation title, date, target audience, number of attendees, location (e.g. school departmental meeting)

7. You have a class of students (middle or high school) who have never heard of Costa Rica. In 250 words or less, please provide an overview of Costa Rica and its people.
Costa Rica, bordered by Nicaragua and Panama and the Caribbean and Pacific, is known for its rich eco-tourism industry, its friendly Tico culture and its coffee. It is a popular retirement and tourist destination for many Americans and Europeans. Perhaps not as well know, and far more intriguing, is Costa Rica’s unique development charter, which seems to be working. Currently, its ambitious goal is to be carbon-neutral by 2020 in order to combat climate change. It is the only country in the world that has articulated such a goal. The national government is developing policies and initiative to limit the carbon output of the country (predominantly from burning fossil fuels and reducing its waste stream) while also increasing carbon sequestration (primarily through increasing forest cover).
This is not the only unique policy that this country has. It also disbanded its military in 1948, choosing to invest its resources in education and healthcare instead. It has mandated 50/50 gender balance in all governmental bodies. These kinds of policies would be challenging for the richest countries to meet. Yet Costa Rica is pursuing the course of peace and sustainability while at the same time dealing with the challenges of any developing nation. And it seems to be succeeding. What can we learn from Costa Rica’s experience?

8. Sundays seem to work best for the group. Please let us know which Sunday in December works best for another follow-up meeting:
December 8
December 15
December 22

December 15 works the best for me. Heidi
Dec 15 is good.

Hi friends! I'm so sorry, I have to work this afternoon =(. I don't know where you want us to put our responses....but here are my answers!
Happy early Thanksgiving!


This is a picture of me with a group of students from the UWC-USA a couple of weeks ago. The tallest is my son, Robin, who will graduate from high school in June. We were at m
y house making momos, a Nepali steamed dumpling, and I invited some of the Japanese and Chinese students to come so that we could explore the similarities and differences between gyoza, momo and potstickers. We had a blast, even though I suppose that Nepal, China and Japan are traditional enemies.

I have worked at the United World College (UWC-USA) since June 2006. From 1996 to 2006, we worked and lived at an international residential school called Woodstock School in Mussoorie, India Prior to that, we lived in Los Angeles, where I was working as the administrator of a women’s civil rights advocacy center and as a teacher at a parent-run cooperative daycare we helped to found. At Woodstock, I was a residential staff and computer, geography and social studies teacher for 3 years until I took over the development and alumni office. This was a really wonderful challenge, but after a successful capital campaign I was ready to get back to working with kids. I was hired at UWC as the first Dean of Co-curricular Programs to oversee the wilderness, conflict resolution and community engagement programs.

The UWC is an IB diploma school that serves 200 students from over 80 countries, most of whom are here on merit-based scholarships. It is a unique school and a perfect place to teach Geography. I was finally able to begin teaching geography here two years ago, and it is amazing to be able to help the students discover more about their own and others’ countries, regions, cultures, etc. instead of having to rely on the book. I got to have the four Chinese kids in the class talk about the one-child policy, for example. The fun thing is that they don’t agree about most things, so we can hear more than one side of the issue. I have also begun to incorporate service learning into my curriculum, and continue to run several after-school programs that utilize UWC’s diverse student body to expand the worldview of the local community. Students test their beliefs and ideas out in the real world and learn valuable skills in the process.

I can’t believe how perfect this program is! The geography curriculum includes the MDGs, so I hope to deepen my understanding of the work being done in other countries. I also want to explore ways to incorporate MDG strategies and success stories into service programs. Though my Spanish is weak, I have un gran deseo de aprender español. I hope that my experiences and background will be helpful to the group. I am half-Japanese, half-Texan, born in Beirut, grew up in Tehran, and finished high school in India during the Iranian revolution. My parents were Presbyterian missionaries. I earned a BA in Geography and BA in Economics from San Francisco State University and then spent a decade in LA before whisking my family off to India. Besides Robin, I have a daughter Dorien (24) who is a Legal Aid in Phoenix and works with people who are incarcerated and facing deportation. She is fluent in Spanish, lucky bug. I love volunteering, travelling, hiking, gardening and renovating old buildings. I am almost finished with an MBA (August 3!) which I am seeking because so many of the non-profits that I work with need to become more competitive. I have especially appreciated the courses on economics and globalization.

Can't wait to meet you all!

The Earth Charter as a Framework for
Understanding Environmental Sustainability:
The Example of Costa Rica

Sharon Seto
July 20, 2013

  • To use the Earth Charter as a framework for introducing IB students to the concept of environmental sustainability
  • To explore areas of coincidence between the UN Millennium Development Goals and the Earth Charter as a way to better understand the concepts of development and environmental sustainability
  • Case Study: Costa Rica as an example of a Less Developed Country (LDC) that has placed sustainability at the top of its national agenda. Example of how national polices can promote sustainable development and environmental sustainability.

Time Sequence:
The lesson plans are based on a block schedule of 85 minutes/block and are designed for use in the core unit on Environmental Sustainability for IB Geography SL/HL during Year One.

Essential questions:
How do human needs fit into the goals of environmental sustainability?
How can nations pursue both sustainability and a growth agenda at the same time?
How do we promote environmental sustainability at an individual, national, and global level?

Background and Context:
The Earth Charter is a declaration of ethical principles for building a just, sustainable and peaceful global society. Begun as part of the preparations for the Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero in 1992, the drafting was carried forward by Maurice Strong, Secretary-General of the Rio Summit, and Mikhail Gorbachev through organizations they each founded, the Earth Council and Green Cross International. In 1997, an independent Earth Charter Commission was formed to coordinate the drafting of the document. It was written with the participation of thousands of governmental and non-governmental groups from around the world. After many drafts, the Earth Charter Commission adopted the Earth Charter in March 2000 at UNESCO headquarters, and it was then launched at the Peace Palace in The Hague. It has since been endorsed by over 2000 organizations, governments, universities, cities, individuals and global institutions such as UNESCO, but not by the General Assembly. (History)

The Earth Charter calls for peoples and nations to work together for a sustainable global society that respects nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace. It declares our responsibility for each other, the greater community of life, and future generations. The Charter lays out an ethical framework in the form of sixteen principles, to be used as a common standard for individuals, organizations, businesses, governments, and global institutions. The overarching principles are: respect and care for the community of life; ecological integrity; social and economic justice; and democracy, nonviolence and peace, and each of these has 3 or 4 principles. The document is short but its scope is huge, and it places value on both human and non-human life in both the present and into the future. The document is available at:

The Earth Charter is being promoted and implemented by a global network of people, organizations, and governments, with these efforts being coordinated and supported by the Earth Charter International (ECI), based at Peace University near San Jose, Costa Rica. Mirian Vilela is the Executive Director of the Earth Charter International Secretariat and the Center for Education for Sustainable Development.

Millennium Development Goals
The Earth Charter is one of several global initiatives that followed the dismantling of the USSR. Another initiative was the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) which were established by the United Nations in September 2000, following the Millennium Summit. Unlike the Earth Charter, all 189 United Nations member states signed the Millennium Declaration. It sets out eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015. The first seven of these eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) have quantitative and time-bound targets, which allows for monitoring of progress through verifiable and internationally comparable indicators. The MDGs aim to:
  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  2. Achieve universal primary education
  3. Promote gender equality and empowering women
  4. Reduce child mortality rates
  5. Improve maternal health
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  7. Ensure environmental sustainability
  8. Develop a global partnership for development.
The MDGs are based on six values that are stated in the Millennium Declaration: freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, respect for nature, and shared responsibility. The text of the full declaration is available at: The values are described as fundamental values to be essential to international relations in the twenty-first century. They include:
Freedom. Men and women have the right to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from hunger and from the fear of violence, oppression or injustice. Democratic and participatory governance based on the will of the people best assures these rights.
Equality. No individual and no nation must be denied the opportunity to benefit from development. The equal rights and opportunities of women and men must be assured.
Solidarity. Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice. Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most.
Tolerance. Human beings must respect one other, in all their diversity of belief, culture and language. Differences within and between societies should be neither feared nor repressed, but cherished as a precious asset of humanity. A culture of peace and dialogue among all civilizations should be actively promoted.
Respect for nature. Prudence must be shown in the management of all living species and natural resources, in accordance with the precepts of sustainable development. Only in this way can the immeasurable riches provided to us by nature be preserved and passed on to our descendants. The current unsustainable patterns of production and consumption must be changed in the interest of our future welfare and that of our descendants.
• Shared responsibility. Responsibility for managing worldwide economic and social development, as well as threats to international peace and security, must be shared among the nations of the world and should be exercised multilaterally. As the most universal and most representative organization in the world, the United Nations must play the central role. (UN Millennium Declaration, 2000)
These values in the Millennium Declaration overlap significantly with the values underlying the principles in the Earth Charter. Both documents also take a holistic approach to sustainable development and require action at the local, regional, national and transnational levels. Both engage civil society in planning and implementation of initiatives. Both documents recognize that socio-economic development and environmental protection are interdependent and are the responsibility of all nations.

Reducing Global Disparities and Environmental Sustainability
The Earth Charter and MDGs serve as a bridge to understanding the concepts of environmental sustainability and sustainable development.

Lesson One (85 minutes):
To be used towards the end of completion of the unit on the MDGs, assuming familiarity with MDGs and development issues. Socio-economic development is tied to environmental sustainability.

  • Introduce Earth Charter – purpose, history, how it is being implemented. Distribute text, provide orientation to structure of Charter. (20 minutes)

  • Connect MDGs and Earth Charter - Form small groups and brainstorm about which Earth Charter principles are related to each of the MDGs. (20 minutes) Share out. Reflect on connections. (20 minutes)

  • Watch introductory video on Earth Charter. (11 minutes) or 10 minutes - brief history and then examples of implementation efforts in US, Mexico, Netherlands, Kenya (Green Belt Movement)

  • Choose one of the 16 principles from the Earth Charter and write it in your own words. Write about an example of its application in the country you are from.

Additional Resources on the Earth Charter: history, text of Earth Charter. Resources section has several good powerpoints, lesson plans, publications, and extension ideas. All are free and downloadable. 4:38 minutes Interview on Earth Charter with Mirian Vielela and Maurice Strong

Lesson Two:
Our well-being depends on the health of our environment and on the resources that we have access to. If our environment is under stress or is changing around us, our community and economy will be impacted. We are challenged to think more holistically about our economic, institutional, and education systems, which have been largely linear and fragmented.

Activity 1: Reinforce understanding of Earth Charter by sharing what you wrote for homework. (15 min)

Activity 2 : Connect an environmental issue in your community to the economic health and social well-being of your community. How do we rely on our environment, and what can we do about problems we see around us? Teacher can come up with a local example or use example. After describing the issue, engage students in discussion questions. (30 minutes)

Example: Watershed Vulnerability Threatens Town’s Water Supply
The town of Las Vegas, New Mexico, is located in the foothills of the Rockies in northeastern New Mexico. It was founded by Spanish settlers in the early 1800’s and was a railroad boom town during the westward expansion in the late 1800’s. Its current population is 14,000, and it is the county seat, serving ranchers and farmers from the surrounding area as well as a university. The region has limited resources or industry, and the median family income is $24,000, so the tax base is very small.
The nearest city is Santa Fe, which is 70 miles away, and Albuquerque is a 2 hour drive. The northern part of the state is mountainous and arid, and faces chronic water shortages. Water rights are shared locally and with surrounding states, putting restrictions on how any available water can be used. There are a few aquifers near Las Vegas, but the water is mostly salty and brackish.
The town has restricted construction of new housing for almost a decade because of water shortages. The supply comes from the Rio Gallinas Watershed, which is mostly forested and is part of the Pecos Wilderness Area. There are no other sources of water that are economically feasible to develop. The region has experienced drought from 2010 to 2013 and residents are under water restrictions. In the spring of 2013, there were forest fires, due to the drought, that burned for over a month near the watershed. Housing prices plummeted as people began to fear that the river would run dry and the city would run out of water.
If there is a forest fire in the watershed itself and the trees that help to capture and retain rainfall are destroyed, the river flow will become dangerously unpredictable. When it rains, the potential for flash flooding will increase because there won’t be trees to slow down the water flow. During the dry season, the flow might stop completely because without trees, recharge is reduced. City officials are doing everything they can to conserve water and plan for this potential, but if there will be no way to provide the residents with water, the town and its businesses and people might suffer great losses until another source of water is found. (Seto)

Discussion Prompts:
In what ways is the town threatened by this crisis (socially, economically, and environmentally?) What are potential options to protect the watershed? How can the city prepare for a water emergency? What could residents do? What would you do if you owned a business in Las Vegas? What should the state do?

Activity 3: Brainstorm and discussion – Climate, water, soil, natural resources, and human resources are some of the main factors that impact development. Also important is how these are owned and controlled. These factors are all mentioned in the Earth Charter.
Which of these factors are important to your community? Why? Are there others?
Why do the Earth Charter and the Millennium Development Goals both mention the need for international cooperation? 30 mins

Lesson Three:
As the world becomes increasingly interdependent and complex, we are challenged to think more holistically about development and about our goals. Sustainable Development uses a new approach that is systemic, integrated, and holistic.

Costa Rica: A Case Study: Can economic development and environmental sustainability be achieved at the same time?

Costa Rica has set an ambitious goal for itself – it aims to be carbon-neutral by 2020 in order to combat climate change. It is the only country in the world that has articulated such a goal. This means that the national government is developing policies and initiative to limit the carbon output of the country (predominantly from burning fossil fuels and reducing its waste stream) while also increasing carbon sequestration (primarily through increasing forest cover).
This is not the only unique policy that this country has. It also disbanded its military in 1948, choosing to invest its resources in education and healthcare instead. It has mandated 50/50 gender balance in all governmental bodies. These kinds of policies would be challenging for the richest countries to meet. Yet Costa Rica is pursuing the course of peace and sustainability while at the same time dealing with the challenges of any developing nation. And it seems to be succeeding. What can we learn from Costa Rica’s experience?

Located between Nicaragua and Panama and the North Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, Costa Rica is a relatively small country of 51,100 sq km (slightly smaller than West Virginia). The population is about 4.7 million, of which 9% are not Costa Rican, with 75% of these being Nicaraguan, many of which are not in the country legally. Only 3% of Costa Ricans reside outside of the country, and most of these are pursuing education or professional careers. Over 60% of the population live in the Central Valley in or near the capital, San Jose. The topography of the country is varied, with coastal plains on both coasts separated by rugged mountains and hills, including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are active. The climate is tropical and semi-tropical. Only 4.89% of the land is arable and land ownership is widespread.
In 1949, Costa Rica disbanded its military forces and began to invest the savings into education. Today, it spends only 0.8% of its GDP on public safety and police. This decision is often cited as the reason that Costa Rica has made better progress in improving social welfare than any of its neighbors. The positive impact of this choice is a source of great national pride for many Ticos.
Costa Rica spends almost 20% of GDP annually on social spending, and there is free healthcare and a pension system for all residents of the country. In addition, Costa Rica’s educational system is better than those of neighboring countries and its literacy rate is 94.9%. Costa Rica has also made tremendous progress in providing clean water nationwide. Since the 1970s, these services have led to a rapid decline in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy, as well as a sharp decrease in birth rate. The average number of children born per women has fallen from about 7 in the 1960s to 3.5 in the early 1980s to below replacement level today.
Costa Rica's poverty rate is lower than in most Latin American countries, but it has stalled at around 20% for almost two decades.Since the 1800’s, Costa Rica’s primary export has been coffee, which was introduced to the country in 1750. Over the past 25 years, it has been able to diversify its economy, and its primary export product today is microchips. Tourism has also become the backbone of its economy and the government and private sector have both invested heavily in developing a wide range of recreational and eco-tourism destinations. Although 14% of the population is still employed in the agricultural sector, over 72% are employed in the service sector.
Costa Rica has no oil or natural gas reserves, and is investing heavily in hydroelectric, wind, and geothermal energy sources. According to SINAC, the Costa Rican governmental body in charge of policies to promote carbon neutrality, over 95% of its electricity comes from renewable sources. Most of the transportation sector relies on petroleum, which is imported. For more on the current state of its energy policy, see An interesting challenge for the country is that of the 38,000 km of roads in Costa Rica, only 25% are paved. Heavy seasonal rains, the rough terrain, and lack of resources make it difficult to upgrade roads, both in urban and rural areas.
In the 1980’s, the government began to set aside land to protect the country’s rich biodiversity, and today, over 24% of the land area of Costa Rica is protected. There are dozens of national parks and reserves. La Amistad International Park is a UNESCO World Heritage site and contains 1% of the world’s biodiversity. (Costa Rica Department of Tourism) The hope has been that the country can generate income from these reserves through tourism and through trading in carbon credits. However, the global recession has cut into the tourism sector, while the lack of progress in setting up international carbon markets has negatively impacted the sale of carbon credits by the country.
In January 2009, the US-Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) took effect. There has been an increase in foreign direct investment, particularly in the insurance and telecommunications sectors, which have been opened to private investors. Costa Rica has also been building stronger economic ties with China. The economy grew by 4.5% in 2012, but the country is facing a fiscal crisis which is undermining its ability to meet its fiscal commitments for social services. (CIA Factbook)


  • Students write down everything they know about Costa Rica and share out (10 min)
  • Using an atlas, guide the development of an overview of the geography of Costa Rica (10 min)
  • Watch videos on Costa Rica. Ask students to take notes on questions they have or things that surprised them about Costa Rica. After watching the videos, have the class come up with a list of questions about the country to research. Group them into economy, geography, demographics, government, tourism, history, environmental protection and biodiversity, social services, etc. (30 min) – 11 min. Costa Rica – No Artificial Ingredients – official video from the Dept. of Tourism. In Spanish: – 4 min. Highlights lack of army, investment in education, environmental protection, and high technology.

  • Students form groups of 2 or 3, choose an area of focus, and browse for answers to the questions that the class developed, along with any other information they think is relevant, on the following suggested sites. Each group then shares their findings with the class. (20 min)
  • Wikipedia link - English, Español
  • CIA World Factbook link
  • National Geographic link
  • Visit Costa Rica ICT link
  • Costa Rican Embassy in Washington, D.C. link
  • U.S. Embassy in San José link

  • Watch video – 9 min. Future Policy Award 2010 – celebration of Costa Rica’s biodiversity policy as told by a Bri Bri girl. Find the Bri Bri on a map. Have each student do a written reflection on the video. (5 mins)

Homework Activity:

Lesson Four and Five
Costa Rica has made great progress on the MDGs but is struggling to continue to develop in an increasingly competitive and interconnected global economy. National priorities still include spending on universal healthcare, education, peace, and environmental sustainability, but the country must also invest in infrastructure, energy and job creation. As the country strives to compete in the global economy, it also tries to implement sustainable policies. What are some of the conflicts that are facing Costa Rica as it seeks to develop sustainably?


  • Warm-up: Share findings of your investigations into the status of Costa Rica on the MDGs. What MDGs are they still working on? How does its progress compare with other countries in the same region? How did the Great Recession of 2008 impact their progress?

  • Case Study: What is Development? Who is the Community? Voices from a Town Meeting in Indigenous Costa Rica by Darcie Vandegrift
Students will spend the next two classes preparing for and the running a case study that examines various points of view among a community of Bri Bris, an indigenous group that lives in southeastern Costa Rica. A fictitious situation that has elements of several real-world situations is described in which a mining company wants rights to mine on tribal land. Students will represent various members of the community and will present their cases at a community meeting. The class will then work to come up with their recommendation on how the community should proceed. The case study highlights the interconnectedness of economic development, quality of life, environmental health, representation and voice, and gender. It was developed at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

  • Groups prepare for the role play by meeting within their group to outline the main points of their presentation. 15 mins.

  • 5 minutes per group, 20 minutes - each group presents their points to the rest of the group, with the earlier groups given a chance for rebuttal. If this is done, the earlier groups need less initial time, since they will be given a bit more time in the open discussion. As an alternative, if the instructor wishes to emphasize power inequalities in development processes, the women and elders can be given less time to speak, something which would correspond to what would probably happen in real life.

  • 30 minutes - Outside of the specific roles assigned and using the questions below, students should create a list of possible options for Di Tsi which address the community's multiple interests and concerns.
Teaching questions which may be used in preparation for the case:
  1. 1. What are the main points your group wishes to make?
  2. 2. What kind of vision does your group have for the future of Di Tsi?
  3. 3. How does your group define development?
  4. 4. How does your group define indigenous culture?
  5. 5. How does this group incorporate this definition into its view of development?
  6. 6. What are at least two points of agreement and disagreement your group has with each of the other groups?
These questions should be answered by all participants or by the whole class:
  1. 7. Ask students to consider how some of the following factors influence the point of view of each group: gender, age, wealth, definitions of Bribri culture.
  2. 8. What kind of power and authority does each group exercise? Consider these sources of power: the Costa Rican government, international non-governmental organizations, control of resources, public opinion, control of the family, wisdom of the elders. Whose interests are most likely to be represented in a final decision?
  3. 9. Should the people of Di Tsi support the mining activities of the Canadian Mining Corporation? Why or Why not?
If yes, what problems or harms will each group experience due to mining? What should the community and your group do to address these potential problems?
If no, what are the problems or exclusions fostered by the grassroots organizations? How can women's, landless people's and older people's ideas and needs be addressed within the resources currently available? (There are no offers of increased expenditures for grassroots organizations.)
  1. What do you think is the best position for the future of Di Tsi? For your group?

Recommended rubrics at:

Homework: students complete the Activity worksheet (attached) that compares three different Venn diagrams on Sustainability.
This exercise will act as a bridge into the rest of the IB core unit on sustainability.

Activity: Compare and contrast the following three graphics that aim to represent ‘sustainability’. How are they the same? How do they differ? Which one do you think best represents the principles in the Earth Charter?
Sustainable development.svg
Sustainable development.svg

Stacks Image 561
Stacks Image 561
Ideas for Extensions: Current Issues in Costa Rica

  • Current Events: Green energy vs. Wetland Protection and Indigenous Rights: Building a hydroelectric dam on the Terraba River. Should a dam that will provide 20% of the country’s electricity from a renewable source be built if it will also threaten the culture and livelihoods of an indigenous group in Costa Rica?

Indigenous community divided on dam project

Video: Detras del Diquis:

Controversy over El Diquis hydroelectric Project

Success story: Las Crucitas, Costa Rica, said “no” to cyanide-mining in 2010. respect Rosia Montana, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <>.


Case Method Website. University of California - Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <>.

Costa Rica: CIA Factbook: (n.d.). Retrieved July 12, 2013, from

Costa Rica Facts Video, Tom Ranieri. n.d. Web. July 15, 2013.

Costa Rica Department of Tourism. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Costa Rica’s energy policy: An example to follow or to avoid?. The Costa Rica News. April 4, 2011. n.d. Web. 15 July 2013.

The Earth Charter Initiative. Earth Charter, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <>.

Earth Charter Video. Earth Charter Initiative, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013.

Future Policy Award 2010 Video. n.d. Web. July 15, 2013.

Guillermo from Life Monteverde,You Tube Video. Maureen McInness, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <>.

History of Earth Charter. (n.d.). Retrieved July 11, 2013, from Earth Charter International:

Millennium Development Goals Indicators Costa Rica. United Nations. n.d. Web. July 15 2013.

Millennium Development Goals Progress 2012 Report. United Nations. n.d. Web. July 15 2013.

No Artificial Ingredients Video. Costa Rica Dept. of Tourism. n.d. Web. July 15 2013.

Seto, Sharon. Watershed Vulnerability Threatens Town’s Water Supply. 14 July 2013.

Success story: Las Crucitas, Costa Rica, said “no” to cyanide-mining in 2010. respect Rosia Montana, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <>.

UN Millennium Declaration. (2000, Sept 8). Retrieved July 12, 2013, from

Biography: Sharon Seto teaches IB Geography higher and standard levels and is the CAS Coordinator and Director of Community Engagement at United World College – USA in Montezuma, New Mexico. She has worked in international schools for the past 17 years. She has BA degrees in Geography and Economics from San Francisco State University and an MBA from the University of New Mexico (pending Aug 2013).