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Fulbright-Hays Group Study Abroad Curriculum Project
I am a Literacy Consultant at Ingham Intermediate School District. My responsibilities include Professional Development Workshops about the Common Core Standards and Literacy. The unit below is designed to align with the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. As we all know, students learn best when they make connections between disciplines. This unit focuses on the U.N. Millenium Development Goal: Ensure Environmental Sustainability, and includes content from Science, Social Studies and English Language Arts. As a participant in the Fulbright-Hays Study Abroad trip I was fortunate enough to visit the beautiful country of Costa Rica and I learned a great deal about environmental sustainability, ecosystems, quality of life, economic develoment and the country itself. The committment of the Costa Rican people to ensuring environmental sustainability is inspiring. My goal in creating this unit is to involve students in some of the same learning that I experienced in Costa Rica and for the students to read, write and reflect as they learn more about Costa Rica and Environmental Sustainability.
Amy Kilbridge

Integrated Science, Social Studies and English Language Arts Unit: The UN Millennium Development Goal of Ensuring Environmental Sustainability

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Objectives:

1. Students will know about all eight of the UN Millennium Development Goals with a focus on Goal Number 7: Ensuring Environmental Sustainability.

2. Students will understand the concept of symbiosis and interdependence in an ecosystem using Costa Rica as an example/context for learning.

3. Students will write an argument essay addressing both sides of an issue involving economic growth vs. environmental sustainability.

4. Students will describe how they as individuals can contribute to environmental sustainability.

6. Students will be able to describe what they believe is a good quality of life for them as individuals and for the world.

Theme:

To examine the choices we make as individuals and as a collective group in order to achieve a sustainable quality of life for all people and living things on the planet.


Activities

(For more details see Background Essay below)

Module One: Millennium Development Goals Anticipatory Set and Overview

UN Partners on MDGs
UN Partners on MDGs


1. Students are given some background about the summit in New York in September of 2000 when world leaders came together at United Nations Headquarters in New York to adopt goals for improving life on our planet.

2. Students will pair up and list the top 8 goals they would choose for the world if they were world leaders.

3. Each pair finds another pair and the group of 4 comes up with the top 8 to share with the class.

4. Now that the students are intrigued, they will look at a detailed description of the 8 U.N. Millennium Development Goals. Summary of UN MDGs

5. Students compare their list with the actual goals, noting similarities and differences.

6. Students will divide into 8 groups/pairs and then view the website on the MDGs. UN MDG Website
Each group will be assigned one of the goals and asked to note the progress made so far.

7. Each group will share their findings with the class.

8. Enrichment: Students could read the speech that President Obama made at the 2010 Summit on the Millennium Development Goals at the United Nations headquarters in New York and analyze the author's purpose. Obama's Speech at the 2010 Summit (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.6)


Module Two: Environmental Sustainability - Up Close
external image ecosystems_definition_03.gif

1. Formative Assessment: Students take a short survey on their perceptions about environmental sustainability.

Environmental Issues Survey Questions:

1) Do you recycleand/or reuse? If yes, please list what items you recycle/reuse.
2) Name some things you do to help protect the environment.
3) Do you like to be outside in a natural environment?
4) If you answered yes to the above question, what do you like to do when you are in a natural environment? If you answered no, explain why you don't like to be outside.
5) Have you ever participated in Earth day, an Environmental Club or other Environmental Organization? \if yes, explain.
6) How important is the environment in your life?

2. Students take a 30 minute nature walk and silently observe their surroundings, using all of their senses.

3. Students return to their classroom and report on what they heard, saw, smelled, felt, etc.

4. Students will describe anything they observed that might harm the environment such as trash, or loud noises.

5. Students will make a list of ways they protect the environment. This list will be saved so that it can be used again at the end of the unit.

Module Three: Ecosystems, Interdependence and Symbiosis


1. Students will view the website: About Those Ants
Leafcutter.
Leafcutter.


From the website, students will learn about the symbiotic relationship between the ants and a rare fungus/mushroom.

2.Students will be given another example of a symbiotice relationship between insects and frogs on this website: Rainforest Frogs in Costa Rica

3. Students will be asked to list other symbiotic relationships they have observed in their own environment.

4.Students will learn the definition of an ecosystem and learn about the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica and its ecosystems by viewing photos and videos on the websites: Mucha Costa Rica and The Nature Conservancy. Peninsula Osa

Costa Rica
Costa Rica

5.Students will then study an ecosystem closer to home, such as the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, using the Kid's Corner Website.Kid's Corner - UP Eco System

6. Assessment: Students will choose a plant or animal from the Osa Peninsula or an ecosystem closer to home to research. Students will need to include the following facts about their living organism in their informational writing piece: Predatory interactions, mutually beneficial interactions, patterns of interactions of the organism/animal with its environment.
Rubric:

(Science Standard: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.4 and CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.7)

Other Resources:


If students are interested in what other kids are doing to help protect wildlife in the rain forests they can look at this website:
Kids Saving the Rain Forest at http://kidssavingtherainforest.org/

Module 4: Economic Growth and Sustainable Development: Mining in Panama and Costa Rica

Follow the Production Team's Trek through remote villages in Panama.  Plus, an interactive map showing the Canadian mines in Latin America.
Follow the Production Team's Trek through remote villages in Panama. Plus, an interactive map showing the Canadian mines in Latin America.


1. Video: Students will watch an excerpt from the PBS News Hour in order to become familiar with the issues surrounding mining and the protests in Panama in July of 2012. PBS Newshour on Mining
Students can also watch the video shown in the photo above at the PBS News Hour link.

2. Students will read 2 or more articles on mining in Costa Rica - several are listed in the Works Cited section at the end of this unit.

3. Students will each list similarities and differences in the findings presented in the text and the video. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.6
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.9)

4. Students will participate in a case study of a fictional town in Costa Rica, with members arguing the pros and cons of allowing a Canadian company to mine for gold and copper in the region. Lesson plan detailed here: Lesson Plan/Case Study on Mining

5. Performance Assessment: Students will write an argument to bring to a simulation of a town meeting taking a stand on whether they should allow the Canadian Mine Company to come to their town or not. Their arguments will need to address the opposing viewpoints. All arguments will need to include the impact of mining on the environment. (CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1a, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.4, CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.5)

6. Students will use their argument writing to participate in a "town meeting," where every student will voice his/her arguments. Rubric:
(CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1)

Module 5: Principals of the Earth Charter
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTf_qty6UKPuvDSGTHUo4QjmY_kwUkYs1BrS6WbaY8dazJxS8u9KR9bhg

1. Students divide into four groups, each group reading one of the four principals of the Earth Charter.
Link to Earth Charter

2. Each group reports their findings to the class.

3. The class generates ideas for moving toward these goals.

4. All students read "The Way Forward" portion of the Earth Charter document.

5. Students watch a short video from the Earth Charter: Earth Charter Video

6. Students will read Wangari Maathai's Forewrd, "Abandon Apathy and Be Moved to Action" in The Earth Charter In Action: Toward A Sustainable World. Link to text:

7. Formative Assessment: Students will choose two of the following words found in Maathai's essay and reflect on them in journal format.

Just
Sustainable
Peaceful
Global Interdependence
Human Family
Shared Responsibility

8. Students will write a reflection using the Maathai's quote below as a prompt:

".....I can talk, I can reflect, and at the end, I can go home, dig a hole, and plant a tree."

9. Enrichment Opportunity: Students can read Maathai's autobiography, Unbowed.

Resources:

Corcoran, Peter Blaze, Mirian Vilela, and Alide Roerink. The Earth Charter in Action: Toward A Sustainable World. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2005. Print.

Maathai, Wangari. Unbowed: A Memoir. N.p.: Anchor, 2007. Print.

Module 6: Quality of LIfe


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1. Students will take the formative assessment they took at the beginning of the unit again and then compare their answers to those from the beginning of the unit.

2. Students will also look at the list of ideas for improving the environment that they came up with at the beginning of the unit and see if they have anything to add or change.

3. Students will explore the Monteverde Now website. There are 11 short films on the site about those who live and work in Monteverde's Cloud Forest.
Monteverde Now

4. Students will divide into 11 groups/pairs and each group/pair will watch one of the videos and report their findings to the class, focusing on quality of life described by the residents of Monteverde.

5. Students will learn about the Happy Planet Index and guess which country is rated the happiest.Happy Planet Index

6. Students will view the Happy Planet Index and learn that Costa Rica was ranked Number One out of 151 countries.

7. Final Assessment: Students will write a descriptive essay in answer to the following prompt:
Using the information you have learned in this unit, describe a high quality of life for you and for the planet. Draw on examples from this unit to use in your essay. Rubric:

(CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.4)

8. Final Performance Task: Students will list actions they can take to help ensure environmental sustainability and commit to those actions. This could take the form of a class project or community service activity. Some possible options:

work in a community garden
create a community garden in your school
create a compost bin at home and learn how to use it
coordinate a "recycling day" at school.
make paper out of recycled paper
reduce your carbon footprint by walking/biking to school, etc.
Create a rainwater barrel and use the water for gardening, etc.
Create a video about environmental sustainability

Standards:


Literacy Standards for Social Studies:

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.6 Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation, describing a procedure, or discussing an experiment in a text, defining the question the author seeks to address.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.9-10.9 Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.

Literacy Standards for Science:

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.6 Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RH.9-10.9 Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.

Literacy Standards for Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.1a Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.5 Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.9-10.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Science Standards:

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems:

2nd: Animals dispersing seeds or pollinating plants

Middle School: Organisms and populations of organisms depend on environmental interactions.

Predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.

High School: Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives. (thinking about how the ants work together, an example of group behavior)

Biodiversity and Humans:

2nd: Examples of the wide diversity of plants and animals in different habitats

3rd: Changes in habitats affect the plants and animals living there

Middle School: Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics vary over time. Disruptions of any component of an ecosystem can lead to declines or increases in populations of different species.

Background Essay

The primary focus of this unit is to teach students about U.N. Millennium Development Goal number 7: Environmental sustainability. Students will study the goal in the context of Costa Rica's environment, using literacy skills to align with the Common Core Standards for Literacy in Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects. Costa Rica is an ideal region to study since there was a shift in the thinking of the Costa Rican people in the 1980's and they went from destroying the forests in favor of development to saving the forests and focusing on environmental sustainability. Not only is environmental sustainability a priority in Costa Rica, many organizations such as CATIE, (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigation y Ensenanza) The Earth Charter, ASOPOROLA, (The Friendship Producers Association)and Life Monteverde focus their work on the idea that people need sustainable livelihoods, meaning they don't just need money, but well-being. The overarching theme of the unit is about the choices we make as individuals and as a collective group in order to preserve quality of life for all people and for our planet.

The unit integrates concepts and standards taught in Science, Social Studies and English Language Arts. Students are often able to achieve greater understanding of material when it is integrated across subject areas. The unit is designed to help students make connections not only between subject areas but also between themselves and their environment, and themselves and the rest of the world. As Mirian Vilela, Executive Director of the Earth Charter Initiative says, "If we can help our students see the relationships between things, they will make bridges and more responsible decisions." Students will use and practice literacy skills such as research, argument writing, close and critical reading, and speaking and listening as they learn Science and Social Studies content. The unit also includes activities to engage the students in experiential learning as much as possible.The unit is divided into modules designed for the high school level but they can be modified/adapted for other grade levels. Some of the modules are more directly connected to science and others more connected to social studies or literacy but together they should help students see relationships between the disciplines.

Students will begin by discovering what the U.N. Millennium Goals are, and why they were created. As an anticipatory set, students will be informed about the summit in New York in September of 2000 when world leaders came together at United Nations Headquarters in New York to adopt goals for improving life on our planet. Students will form small groups and put themselves in the position of the world leaders. If they could choose eight goals for all countries in the world to adopt, what would they be? Teachers whose students have studied various countries may ask students to choose a region to represent in the discussion. This would give students the opportunity to think about how leaders from other parts of the world may have priorities that are different from the United States. Be sure that Costa Rica is represented in the discussion. Costa Rica has made Environmental Sustainability a priority as they have gained notoriety as a destination for Eco Tourism. As a result, tourism is a huge industry in Costa Rica, and over one million tourists visit each year. "The country is often sited as a model for conservation in harmony with community development and economic growth" (Embassy of Costa Rica).

All 189 member states have agreed to a deadline of 2015 for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Barack Obama gave a speech at the 2010 Summit on the Millennium Development Goals at the United Nations headquarters in New York and committed to the MDGs in these closing remarks, "These are the elements of America’s new approach. This is the work that we can do together. And this can be our plan -- not simply for meeting our Millennium Development Goals, but for exceeding them, and then sustaining them for generations to come" (Obama's Speech at the Summit).

Once the students have had an overview of all of the Millennium Development Goals, the coursework will focus on Goal #7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability. One objective is for students to begin to think about what Environmental Sustainability and quality of life mean to them as individuals.
Quiet reflection time is built into the unit. As Guillermo Vargas of LIfe Monteverde says, "It is important to encourage students to go deeper in their observations. We need to go slower. People who do research in the forest sit for hours observing." Life Monteverde is a family-owned coffee farm working toward environmental sustainability through organic farming.


Students will reflect on their environment and the interdependence/symbiosis that exists. Students will learn/review that an eco system is a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment, using Costa Rican rain forests as an example. When an ecosystem is healthy, scientists say it is sustainable, meaning all the elements live in balance and are capable of reproducing themselves. An example of this is described in the video of Guillermo Vargas talking about how leaf cutter ants found in the rain forest carry leaves back to their nests and they don't eat the leaves, but they make a pile of chewed leaves on which grows a fungus or mushroom which the ants eat. Another example of symbiosis found in the rain forest is that termites make nests in trees. They eat wood and are eaten by frogs, birds and giant anteaters. They are decomposers because they eat dead organic matter. Students will come up with examples from their environment that are similar. (worms are decomposers, etc.)

In 2007, Costa Rica started efforts to sustain the ecosystems in the rain forests. Since Peninsula Osa is one of the priority areas, students will learn about the Corcovado National Park on the Peninsula de Osa. This area was named one of the most biologically intense places on earth by National Geographic. In the park there are 10,000 species of insects, 360 species of birds, 140 mammals, and 5 species of cats: Jaguar, Puma, Ocelot, Margay and Tapir. Students will learn that there are 25 distinct ecosystems in Corcovado (MuchaCosta Rica). and see photos of snakes, monkeys, scarlet macaws and other creatures not found in their own environment. There is more environmental awareness in the Osa Peninsula than in other parts of Costa Rica, so the organizations dedicated to protecting the ecosystems in the Peninsula Osa receive many conservation grants. Resources on the topic are plentiful and some are listed below.

Once students have a better idea about interdependence of plants and animals in an ecosystem, they can begin to reflect on the idea that all humans across the globe are connected. The Millenium Development Goals were created partly as a response to globalization and the realization that we can no longer operate as individual countries or parts of the world. What happens in Panama affects Costa Rica and vice versa. According to life-long resident of Costa Rica, Angelo Flores, Costa Ricans felt so strongly about Environmental Sustainability that they went to Panama in July of 2012 to protest deforestation from a Canadian company that would have had a negative impact on the environment. There have also been issues with mining in Costa Rica. According to Alicia Jimenez, Project Coordinator, Earth Charter International Secretariat, the government made mining a priority before Laura Chinchilla became president. A Canadian Mining Company invested in the Crucitas mine and the government said it would bring jobs but it only brought lower level jobs. The upper level jobs were held by Canadians. The people of Costa Rica were frustrated by the fact that the mine was not beneficial for Costa Ricans in a substantial way. The harm done to the environment was also a large concern. So civil society was active and people mobilized against the mines. First, the government decided there would be no more new mining in Costa Rica, but this left the Crucitas mine open. Eventually there were enough protests by environmentalists that the court ordered the Crucitas mine closed - a victory for protesters concerned about the environment, endangered species of trees, and the green macaw. The Canadian Mining Company is expected to appeal the decision made by the courts. (TicoTimes.net)

Another example of the conflict between economic development and environmental sustainability is the building of all inclusive resorts along the coast of Costa Rica. According to Felicia Granados Cordero of CATIE, (Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza) Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center, for every dollar invested in the all-inclusive resorts, 20 cents stays in Costa Rica. People who come to these types of resorts aren't looking to learn about the culture in Costa Rica, and so building materials, much of the food, etc. are imported. Now, 20 years after the resorts were built the coastal areas are struggling. Some people want to build an international airport in the Osa Peninsula and build a resort there but many residents are against it. Osa Peninsula is home to many endangered species, and building a resort there would surely have a negative impact on the environment and would change the culture and way of life for the people who live there. (CATIE 40 Anniversario)

In this unit, students are asked to discuss the concepts of economic growth and sustainable development. Students will reflect on these concepts that are often conflicting. The growth approach advocates generating income and reducing poverty but in the case of mining, this growth takes a toll on the environment and traditions of the community. Organizations like the Earth Charter emphasize balancing the preservation of indigenous cultures and natural resources with economic growth goals and other long term community needs. The Earth Charter was formed as part of the the planning for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. (UNCED) When the United Nations was founded in 1945, three major goals were identified: to ensure peace and world security, to secure human rights, and to foster cooperation for social and economic development. Environmental Protection was added as a fourth goal, and the Earth Charter adopted the goal of addressing these goals with an integrated approach.
(Corcoran, Vilela, and Roerink [Page 18]).


As a way of engaging students in studying the concepts of economic growth and sustainable development, students will study the situation with the Crucitas mines and they will also engage in a case study about the dilemma faced by a community with the prospect of a mine coming to their town. This would bring work to people who are impoverished but would also cause some harm to local wildlife. Students will imagine that they are attending a meeting of community members who wish to pursue an offer made by a Canadian Mining Corporation. The company wants to mine for gold and copper in the area. Students will reflect on the pros and cons of bringing a mining operation to their town and then take a stand and write up an argument to bring to a simulation of a town meeting. Should they allow the Canadian Mine company to come to their town or not? Their argument will need to address the opposing viewpoints. Mining would bring jobs and services such as a medical clinic. But it would also bring potential harm to the environment and a change in the norms and culture of the community. (Case Method Website)

After grappling with issues of economic growth vs. sustainable development,Students will also write a reflection using Wangari Maathai's quote as a prompt: ".....I can talk, I can reflect, and at the end, I can go home, dig a hole, and plant a tree" (Corcoran, Vilela, and Roerink [Page 13]).
Students who are interested in knowing more about Wangari Maathai and the Green Belt Movement she started in Kenya could read her autobiography, Unbowed: A Memoir. The book details her life experiences and the grass-roots movement she organized which resulted in the planting of more than 30 million trees across Kenya.

At this point in the unit, hopefully students are thinking about quality of life and the choices we need to make regarding sustainability and our environment. As outlined in the previous examples, Costa Ricans often make choices based on quality of life, not just profit. They have embraced the concept of environmental sustainability in a variety of ways. The Government has instituted environmental services payments and Costa Ricans get paid for planting trees. There is also an Ecological Blue Flag Program which awards schools and businesses the Blue Flag for taking care of the environment in their institutions. (Nature Blog) According to Felicia Granados Cordero of CATIE, The Ministry of Education has recently decided that the Blue Flag Program will be mandatory for all schools. A category for sustainable homes was also started last year, . As Guillermo Vargas said in the video from Life Monteverde, "......as we think about profit, we should remember that profits aren't always financial but profits can be related to being more, and having a higher quality of life." This sums up the overall theme of the unit.

For anyone who has spent time in Costa Rica, it's no surprise that the Happy Planet Index rated Costa Rica number one. The efforts of the government and the people to preserve the environment and a sustainable way of life are to be commended and provide inspiration and a road map of sorts for other countries. Of course, because of Costa Rica's popularity as an eco-tourism destination, the country profits financially from being green to some extent, but the profit is also in its rich biodiversity and sustainable quality of life.

Resources:


Works Cited
About Those Ants. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.rainforesteducation.com/ants/ants1.htm>.

Case Method Website. University of California - Santa Barbara, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.soc.ucsb.edu/projects/casemethod/vandergrift.html>.

CATIE 40 Anniversario. CATIE, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://catieeducacion-web.sharepoint.com/>.

Corcoran, Peter Blaze, Mirian Vilela, and Alide Roerink. The Earth Charter in Action: Toward A Sustainable World. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2005. Print.

Costa Rica: Osa Peninsula. The Nature Conservancy, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://adopt.nature.org/acre/costa-rica/>.

Costa Rica 21. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://costarica21.com/Rainforest-Frogs.html>.

The Earth Charter Initiative. Earth Charter, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/pages/Read-the-Charter.html>.

Earth Charter Video. Earth Charter Initiative, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/>.

Earth Charter Youth Network. Earth Charter, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.earthcharterinaction.org/content/pages/tools>.

Embassy of Costa Rica in Washington DC. Embassy of Costa Rica, n.d. Web. 24 July 2013. <http://www.costarica-embassy.org/?q=node/21>.

Global Educators. Michigan State University, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://globaleducators.wikispaces.com/file/view/Anna%20Perrin%20MDG%20report.pdf/441588324/Anna%20Perrin%20MDG%20report.pdf>.

Guillermo from Life Monteverde,You Tube Video. Maureen McInness, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9PYW6x44J4&feature=youtu.be>.

Happy Planet Index. The New Economics Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.happyplanetindex.org/countries/costa-rica/>.

Kid’s Corner. Houghton Forestry Sciences Laboratory, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://forest.mtu.edu/kidscorner/ecosystems/definition.html>.

Kids Saving the Rain Forest. KSTR Costa Rica, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://kidssavingtherainforest.org/>.

Maathai, Wangari. Unbowed: A Memoir. N.p.: Anchor, 2007. Print.

Mining.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.mining.com/canadian-gold-company-threatens-costa-rica-with-1bn-lawsuit-60920/>.

Mucha Costa Rica. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. http://muchacostarica.com. Nature Blog. Costa Rica Domestic and Regional Airlines, n.d. Web. 24 July
2013. <http://blog.natureair.com/index.php/2013/07/what-is-costa-ricas-blue-flag-program/>.

Obama’s Speech at the Summit in New York 2010. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.cfr.org/poverty/obamas-speech-millennium-development-goals-summit-new-york-september-2010/p22996>.

Panama: The New Conquistadors. Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://pulitzercenter.org/projects/panama-canada-gold-copper-mining-protests-environmental-destruction>.

Panama: The New Conquistadors. PBS Newshour. Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/world/july-dec12/conquistadors_07-17.html>.

Reuters.com. Reuters Edition U.S., n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/10/costarica-mining-idAFN0912629920101110>.

Success story: Las Crucitas, Costa Rica, said “no” to cyanide-mining in 2010. respect Rosia Montana, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. http://respectrosiamontana.wordpress.com/2011/09/05/success-story-las-crucitas-costa-rica-said-no-to-cyanide-mining-in-2010/.

TicoTimes.net. Tico Times, 24 Nov. 2010. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.ticotimes.net/More-news/News-Briefs/Costa-Rican-Court-Strikes-Down-Las-Crucitas-Gold-Mine-Project_Wednesday-November-24-2010>.

UN Millenium Develoment Goals. United Nations, n.d. Web. 17 July 2013. <http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml>.